What Is Database and Types of Database Model

What Is Database and Types of Database Model

Do you know what is Database and types of database model?  You know that in today's world how much data and information are important. You can find Data and Information on the internet within a seconds. You just have to write the question on the browser or Search engine.

Within a few seconds, you will answer to your question. The information about employees of different big companies, students(Name, Roll no, Address) of different Colleges and schools are found on the internet. But, only a few people know where it is actually placed.

Everyday data changes in Banks and Online Reservation(Train, Flight, Hotel). Transaction on the bank is done with the help of mobile and Computer. Here, it also has data but the transaction is also done by thousand and millions of people. You might have a question now that Where all the Details of the transaction store?

You might think that where does all the data and information kept? Is there any place on the internet? Or there is any person who wrote this? There is one Answer to all these questions i.e Database. Without a database, the internet is nothing.

What is Database?

Database Data Storage

Database(DB) is a collection of related information or data. Information is stored in an organized way. To store information it uses some Software like MS-Excel. Here, all the data are stored in Digital Memory devices like Hard disk.

Information is kept in such a way in the database so that you can easily access and manipulate that data.
Let's understand by taking an example if the MS-Excel has details about the 100 students and the details have ROLL NO, name, father name, date of birth. Then, we can say that Excel Sheet is a Database.

You can access the information on the database at any time. Now, let's deeply understand access, suppose there is one University and there is a lot of students approximately 5000 students finished their exams.

Now, their results will be uploaded to the database with the help of a computer or maybe the official website of the University. And, here the database of Student's Result is created. At the time of the result publication, these results are published. Students write their roll no to get their respective Results. This process is called accessing the database.

Many databases may be of Google, Government, Company where they store their information.

Database Management System (DBMS)

It is a Software System with the help of which the user can Create, Define, Maintain and Control the database. DBMS is a collection of Programs which is generally used to maintain the Database.

Here maintain means, you can Insert, Delete, Edit, Access, and Update the data to the database. 

DBMS is a Software package which helps us to Create Database. Let us considered, you create a Database named Student and now, you have to add Student Details. Unfortunately, if you have given the wrong details then you have to edit it. And also, after a few days, some data turned to be useless then you have to delete it. These all are done with the help of the Database Management System (DBMS).

Example of Database

As there are many DBMS Software, Some of them are:-


Among all, Dbase was first developed DBMS software. It was used in Microcomputer. At that time, this Software was Successful DBMS. Dbase have all the component like Database Engine, Query System, a Forms Engine and to run all these component it uses Programming Language. The File Extension of this file is .dbf.

In 1980, Ashton-Tate Company published the Dbase and these were used to run in the OS of Microcomputer. Later on, it is used by Apple and IBM OC both were run on DOS OS. For many years, it was awarded as best selling Software of the Year.


FoxPro has text-based procedurally oriented programming language and also Database Management System. It is Object-Oriented Programming Language and it was developed by FoxPro.

But, later on, Microsoft developed FoxPro to run on MS-DOS, Windows, and Unix version. Also, it is renamed Visual FoxPro but after a few years in 2007 it's production was banned.


IMS Database follows the hierarchical model to store data which is very different from DB2 and Relational Model. Usually, it is used for Information Management.


Oracle is also known as Oracle RDBMS. It is an Object-relational database management. It is mostly used in today's generation and it was developed by the Software Company named Oracle Corporation. The CO-Founder of this corporation was Larry Ellison and his friends.


It is also an Object-relational database management. Its name was named according to the daughter of CO-Founder Michael Widenius and the full form of SQL is Structured Query Language. It was developed by MySQL AB Software Company which was established in 1995. Now, Oracle Corporation handles them.


It is a product of the Database. DB2 is used to Store, Analyze, Retrieve the data to and from Database. It also follow Object Oriented Concept.

Database Operations


To store data, we use Insert Operation. For example, inserting Name, roll no, address of students to the Database named Student.


To delete data or record from the database we use Delete Operation. 


We use Update operation to change or modify data which is already on Database. For example, if the student shifts to another place then there must be a change in a database that we can do by the update operation.


To search for one information or group of information. Like to see the results, Balance Enquiry, Train ticket Available, we use Search Operation.

Types of Database Model

Data Model is a collection of concepts that can be used to describe the structure of the database.
It describes how data are logically stored, Organised and Manipulated.

I will make you understand by using an example. You were asked to write Family Details then you can write as by making a table or by not using a table or writing children's name below the mom and dad's name.

These three types are the Data Model. Like in the same way, these three models are used in Database Design.

1. Hierarchical Model
2. Network Model
3. Relational Model

1. Hierarchical Model

This model has a Tree-like Structure. This model follows Tree Structure in order to connect Records. The tree has Nodes and Branches. This tree represents the Logical Structure of the Database.
The figure below shows the structure of this model.
Fig: Hierarchical Model

2.Network Model

This model is very Powerful but Complicated. Because all the Nodes/Tables are linked with each other. This model can be represented in Graph Structure. Department, Student, Course, and Professor are Linked with each other which is clearly shown in the figure below.
Fig: Network Model

3.Relational Model

This model is very Powerful and Simple. Also, it is very Flexible and Natural. This Data Model has Structure of Table. The table is known as Relation in Database. So, its name is a relational model. It is like a table so it has Rows and Columns.

In the Relational Model, Rows is known as Record and Column is known as Field. Also, it has a Unique field known as Primary Key. And, with the help of this key tables can be connected. For example, the Student table has Roll No as Primary Key.
Fig: Relational Model

Components of Database

The main three Component are:-

1.Database User

These are the user who access or search databases from any place at any time. For example, you are the user who search anything in Google and reads the information. But, you don't know how they are actually stored.


The full form of DBA is the Database Administrator which is the Manager of Database. it Control all the System. It will understand the needs of the Users and according to them, it manages and update the data.

3.Application Program

It is a DBMS Software Program. It is used to manage all the Database System. 

This is the information about the Database. I hope that you have understood now that What is the Database and Types of Database Model.

If you know extra information about Database and also any queries about this topic then you can write on comment below. If you like the information then please don't forget to share on your Social Networking Sites like facebook, twitter, etc.

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